Что такое экология на английском языке


We live on a very beautiful planet – on the Earth. Our planet has very rich resources: the bright blue of the sky, fresh, crystal-clear mountain lake water, the rich green of the mountains slopes, wild flower, picturesque views – all these sceneries of nature fill us with admiration.

That’s why those who live in cities prefer spending their days off and their holidays far from the noise of the city, to be closer to nature. Perhaps they like to breathe fresh air or to swim in clear water because the ecology is not so poor as in the cities.
Ecology is the study of the ways in which organisms (plants and animals) depend upon each other and upon their surroundings. Each organism requires conditions in order to be able to live and breed. These conditions are its environment by changing the ecological conditions.

So, pollution is one of the most burning problems of nowadays. Now millions of chimneys, cars, buses, trucks all over the world exhaust fumes and harmful substances into the atmosphere. These poisoned substances pollute everything: air, land, water, birds and animals people. So, it is usually hard to breathe in the large cities where there are lots plants. Everything there is covered with soot and dirt. All these affect harmfully.

Water pollution is very serious, too. Ugly rivers of dirty water polluted with factory waste, poisoned fish are all-round us. And polluted air and poisoned water lead to the end of the civilization. So, nowadays a lot of dead lands and lifeless areas have appeared. Because our actions and dealings can turn the land to a desert.

So, we see that our environment offers an abundance of subject matter for discussion. The problems and prospects of the blue planet interest not only scientist and futurologists, but also politicians, industry, the public – and above all, young people! There is hardly a young person who is not conserved with the preservation of our natural habitat. To recognize environmental problems and master them, to reduce and avoid environmental pollution, to discover and develop ecologically sound technologies – there are the essential building blocks for our future.

Whether scientist or politicians, bankers or student, whether Greek, Norwegian, Hungarian or Finn … all are encouraged to make a contribution towards protecting the environment. Dedication and the courage to change one’s way of thinking are called for.

We are to stop pollution. So, we can grow plants and trees, to purify waste, to start urgent campaigns in order to preserve environment For example, in 1989 in Australia, Sydney. In a year the same kind of action was held all over Australia and it was called “Clean up Australia” the following years 110 countries hold the similar actions within the ecological program of the UNO.

Nowadays there are many different pressure and interests groups in British, which try to find solutions to the problems of pollution at the national and international level. So they are groups of people with a common interest in trying to draw the public attention to environment problems, to influence the government decisions.

Greenpeace is a very famous pressure group. It started functioning in 1971. Its headquarters are at Amsterdam, but it operates in 25 countries worldwide. The aim of Greenpeace is to protect wildlife of toxic wastes, nuclear tests.

“Friends of the Earth” (FoE) is one of the British pressure groups with an international reputation. Its general aim is to conserve the planet’s resources and reduce pollution. FoE was established in 1971 and now it operated in 44 countries worldwide. It campaigns among other things, for recycling and renewable energy, and the destruction of wildlife and habitat. The main campaigning issues of the FoE are:

So, a number of campaigns resulted in:

But not only great groups can influence the problem of pollution. So, different people have their own opinions on this problem:

And I agree with them because it is really so. And terrible examples prove them.

The Baltic Sea is a special case. Because it is such a small sea and it becomes dirty very easily. Its waster changes slowly through the shallow straits. As many as 250 rivers run into the Baltic. There are hundreds of factories in these rivers and millions of people live along them. Quite a lot of big cities lie on its coast. All these combined with the active navigation of the sea naturally affects the state of the sea water and the shore line flora and fauna. People suffer from the waster pollution; cancer deaths increase people’s concern.

And there is no escape from this ecological crisis without organizing a single body dealing with the environmental problems, developing and carrying out a nationwide program of environmental protection and co-operating with international schemes.

Population Fears.

Scientists now predict that by the year 2050 the population will be doubled what is today. The fact remains that the rate of food production fell behind population growth in many of developing countries. The annual fish catch already exceeds what the world ‘s oceans can successfully sustain. If we go on using our natural recourses at today’s rates, we will have used up the intire reserves of cooper, natural gas and oil by the year 2054.

But the problem ahead lie not so much in what we use but in what we waste. What faces us is not so much a recourse crisis as a pollution crisis. The only solution is to try to change the areas of consumption, technology and population. Changes in technology must be baked by slower population growth. And it can be achieved by education in health and women’s rights. And there is a little hope of reducing consumption over the next half century.


Топик Ecology

We live on the earth. It is very, very big. There is a lot of water on the earth. It is in rivers, lakes, seas and oceans. There are a lot of forests and fields, hills and mountains on it. The earth is full of wonders. Different animals live on the earth. Different plants grow on it. The earth is beautiful. There are large countries and small countries. There are warm countries and cold countries. There are some countries where there are four seasons in a year and some countries where there are only two. When the sun shines it is day. When the sun does not shine it is night. When it is day in one country it is night in another. You can see the moon and the stars in the sky at night. People live in different countries. They speak different languages.

The planet Earth is only a tiny part of the universe, but it’s the only place where human beings can live. Today, our planet is in serious danger. Acid rains, global warming, air and water pollution, overpopulation are the problems that threaten human life on Earth.

Who is to blame for the disaster? The answer is simple: all of us. Our forests are disappearing because they are cut down or burnt. If this trend continues, one day we won’t have enough oxygen to breathe.

The seas are in danger. They are filled with poison: industrial and nuclear waste, chemical fertilisers and pesticides. The Mediterranean is already nearly dead; the North Sea is following. The Aral Sea is on the brink of extinction. If nothing is done about it, one day nothing will be able to live in the seas.Every ten minutes one kind of animal, plant or insect dies out for ever. If nothing is done about it, one million species that are alive today may soon become extinct.

Air pollution is another serious problem. In Cairo just breathing the air is dangerous — equivalent to smoking two packs of cigarettes a day. The same holds true for many Russian cities. Factories emit tons of harmful chemicals. These emissions have disastrous consequences for our planet. They are the main reason for the greenhouse effect and acid rains. An even greater threat are nuclear power stations. We all know how tragic the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster are.

Fortunately, it’s not too late to solve these problems. We have the time, the money and even the technology to make our planet a better, cleaner and safer place. We can plant trees and create parks for endangered species. We can recycle litter. We can support green parties and put pressure on those in power. Together we can save the planet and all of us with it.

Of course, people can’t stay indifferent to these problems. There are a lot of special organizations, which try to save our nature. The most known are: The Royal Society for the prevention of cruelty to animals (The RSPCA), the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and Greenpeace. The RSPCA tries to protect animals from bad use. It operates big nation campaigns aimed at lost pets, circus animals. The WWF rescued several species of animals, mammals as well as birds. These organization also helped to create more than 250 National parks. Greenpeace began its work 20 years ago from saving whales. And now Greenpeace is a world-famous organization, which saves plants, animals and people. These organization, want to rescue animals, to help them to survive and to save jungle rain forests, which are in danger of destruction. And they also help animals ’cause many of them have already gone as they have nowhere to live. Their homes, the trees, have disappeared. We must save wild animals. And we must find the right way to save land, people and animals. We must lake care of nature, because we are part of it.

I would advise everyone to think about this problem. Together we can find a solution!


Реферат по английскому языку на тему Экология/ Ecology с переводом читать

Представлен реферат по английскому языку на тему Экология/ Ecology с переводом читать бесплатно.

С древних времен природа являлась источником жизни человека. Люди жили в гармонии и мире с окружающей средой тысячелетиями. Они никогда не задумывались над тем, что природные ресурсы могут быть ограниченными. Это пришло только с развитием индустриализации. Слово «экология» довольно популярно сегодня. Это наука о взаимосвязи всех форм жизни на планете Земля. Это слово произошло от греческого oikos, что означает «дом». Дом – это вся планета, окружающая среда, население, природа, животный мир, и все живые существа в мире. Сегодня экологические проблемы являются настолько серьезными, какими никогда прежде не были. Это особенно актуально для людей, живущих в больших загрязненных городах. К некоторым насущным, современным экологическим проблемам относятся:

Животный мир также в большой опасности. В настоящее время больше чем когда-либо вымирающих или исчезающих видов. Животных убивают на мясо, кожу, мех, бивни. Кроме того, миллионы деревьев вырубаются для получения бумаги. Люди должны понимать, что природные ресурсы не безграничны. Если они будут продолжать бездумно использовать ресурсы, вскоре ничего не останется. К счастью, существуют такие организации, которые делают все возможное, чтобы решить эти проблемы. Одной из них является Гринпис. Пожалуй, это самая известная организация, защищающая исчезающие виды животных и растений в течение многих десятилетий. Несмотря на то, что ее штаб-квартира находится в Амстердаме, она функционирует в более чем 40 странах.

Since ancient times Nature was the source of Man’s life. People lived in harmony and peace with environment for thousands of years. They never thought that natural resources can be limited. This occurred only with the development of industrialization. The word “ecology” is rather popular today. It’s the study about the relationship of all forms of life on planet Earth. It is derived from Greek work oikos, meaning “home”. By home they mean the whole planet, its environment, population, nature, wildlife, and all the other living beings in the world. Today, the ecological problems are as urgent, as they’ve never been before. It is especially true for people living in large polluted cities. Some serious up-to-date environmental problems are:

Pollution in its many forms has become increasingly worrying. Every year world industries throw millions of tons of dust or other harmful substances into the atmosphere, polluting the air we breathe and the water we drink. As a result of careless interaction with nature, world oceans get polluted, which kills many species. After some ships accidentally spill oil in oceans or seas, thousands of fish and birds simply die, some beaches become dangerous for swimming. People are even more concerned of air pollution today, as there are many poisonous and harmful materials being sent into the air. This gradually leads to acid rains, greenhouse effect and other ecological problems. Cars and other vehicles are considered to be the polluters of air as well as noise polluters. By nuclear pollution people mean massive releases of radioactive materials from nuclear weapons. One of the most tragic consequences had the disaster in Chernobyl. This Ukrainian city had completely died out from radiation in April of 1986.

Wildlife is in real danger too. There are more endangered and disappearing species nowadays than ever. Animals are killed for meat, skin, fur, tusks. Besides, millions of trees are cut down for paper. People have to understand that natural resources are not limitless. If they continue using the resources thoughtlessly, soon there will be nothing left. Fortunately, there are certain organizations, which do their best to solve such problems. One of them is Greenpeace. It is also the most renowned organization, which have been saving endangered animals and plants for decades. Although its headquarters are in Amsterdam, it operates in more than 40 countries.


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