Перевод edison is known as one of the greatest inventors

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Edison is known as one of the greatest inventors of his time. He invented so much that it is difficult to say which of his achievements is the greatest. He was an experimenter and a practical man more than a theoretician.

Edison did not have any education. He went to school for only three months. Then he left because the teacher considered him a dull boy. His mother became his teacher. The boy loved books and his mother said that he had a wonderful memory. When he first visited a public library and saw a lot of shelves with books he decided that he would read all of them and then he would know everything in the world. He measured the shelf and decided to read a lot of books every week.

In 1868 Edison built his first patented invention — an electromagnetic device.

It is said that he planned to ask three thousand dollars for his invention, though he secretly decided he would sell it for two thousand if necessary. He was invited to a meeting of businessmen who were interested in buying his invention, but when he was asked to name a price he was very nervous and quite unable to speak.

«It is no use asking us a big price,» said one of the businessmen, «we’ve already decided how much we will pay. Forty thousand dollars is our limit.»

With this money Edison established a workshop and began his career as a professional inventor at the age of twenty-two.

All his inventions were the result of hard work. He sometimes con­ducted thousands of experiments. According to him, the idea that a genius works only by inspiration was absurd. «Genius is 2 per cent inspiration and 98 per cent perspiration,» he often said.

I. Напишите соответствуют ли предложения содержанию текста (eсли предложение верно, напишите «True», если нет «False»).

1. Edison is famous for his great achievements.

2. He did not get any education at school.

3. He liked to visit a public library and read a lot of books every week.

4. Businessmen bought his invention for two thousand dollars.

5. Edison considered that inspiration is more important than perspiration.

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Text B. Inventors and Their Inventions

Edison is known as one of the greatest inventors of his time. He invented so much that it is difficult to say which of his achievements is the greatest. He was an experimenter and a practical man more than a theoretician.

In 1868 Edison built his first patented invention — an electromagnetic device.

All his inventions were the result of hard work. He sometimes made thousands of experiments. According to his words the idea that a genius works only by inspiration was absurd. “Genius is 2 per cent inspiration and 98 per cent perspiration,” he often said.

Samuel Colt was an American. He lived in the 19th century. In 1836 he designed and patented a pistol. It was a pistol with a revolving barrel that could fire 6 bullets one after the other. It was the first pistol of its kind. Later there came many other pistols with 6 bullets.

Rudolf Diesel was a German engineer. He was born in 1858 and died in 1913. In 1897 he invented a new internal combustion engine. This engine is known as a diesel and it began a transport revolution in cars, lorries, trains and ships. The main advantage of diesels is that they run on rather cheap fuel.

Samuel Finley Morse was born in 1791. He died in 1872. He was a portrait painter. Then he became the inventor. For 12 years he tried to perfect the telegraph and he was a success. Later he invented the telegraphic dot-and-dash alphabet. Now it is known as Morse code. Morse code was not only one in America of that time. There were some others. But now we use Morse code all over the world.

Charles Makintosh lived from 1766 to 1843. He lived in Scotland and was a chemist by profession. He worked in a textile industry. In 1823 he developed a rubber solution. This rubber solution was used for raincoat production. Raincoats with this rubber solution didn’t allow water to penetrate. These raincoats were called makintoshes. Now people all over the world use them in spring and in autumn.

Charles Rolls was born in 1881 in Great Britain. He died in 1910. He was an aristocrat and businessman. He was especially interested in cars. Once he met another enthusiast of cars Henry Royce. Henry Royce was a famous car engineer. They decided to design the most comfortable and reliable car. At the beginning of the 20th century it seemed to be a fantasy. But they worked hard and at last in 1907 they created the world-famous Rolls-Royce car. It was so comfortable and reliable that one of the models of Rolls-Royce cars “Silver Ghost” hadn’t changed greatly for 20 years since 1907.

Gotlif Daimler and Charles Benz were two inventors. They lived in Germany. They were both interested in car production. At the end of the 19th century each of them designed a car. At the same time they organized two independent firms to produce them.

All the cars produced by the firm of Daimler were called “Mercedes”. Mercedes was a daughter’s name of one of the stockholders of the firm. This man saved the firm of Daimler from the financial crisis at the beginning of the 20th century. But after the World War I the firm of Daimler met financial difficulties again. This time it had to join the firm of Benz. Since that time all the cars produced by the firm “Daimler-Benz” have been called “Mercedes-Benz”.

I. Find in the following list the names of the inventors who gave their names to the things they created. Put them down in the chart.

Inventor Invention Year of invention Country

II. Read the text ‘Inventors and Their Inventions’. Find information to complete the chart.

III. Complete the chart.

IV. Find in the text the famous words of Edison proving his idea of a genius. Do you agree with him?

V. Speak on the invention you consider the most important one. Use the plan below:

1) the invention you consider to be one of the greatest in the world; 2) the name of the person it was designed by; 3) the country this invention was made in; 4) what this thing was made for; 5) how it is used now; 6) how it influenced our life.

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C O N V E R S A T I O N

The Progress of Science

science, n наука
scientist, n ученый
scientific, adj научный
to develop the modern tools of war создать современное оружие
to improve life улучшить жизнь
to supply the world with energy обеспечить мир энергией
to share the resources сообща пользоваться ресурсами
a solution to the problem решение проблемы
knowledge provided by science знания, предоставляемые наукой
the Universe Вселенная
for the benefit of men на благо человека
to be affected by modern technology быть связанным с современной техникой
advances in technology технические достижения
to be essential for иметь огромное значение для
to predict earthquakes предсказывать землетрясения
the origin and developments происхождение и развитие
a basic knowledge of science элементарное знание науки
to find one’s way in ориентироваться в

Science

Science is important to world peace in many ways. On one hand, scientists have helped to develop many of the modern tools of war. On the other hand, they have also helped to keep the peace through research which has improved life for people. Scientists have helped us understand the problem of supplying the world with enough energy; they have begun to develop a number of solutions to the energy problem — for example, using energy from the sun and from the atom. Scientists have also analysed the world’s resources. We can begin to learn to share the resources with the knowledge provided to us by science. Science studies the Universe and how to use its possibilities for the benefit of men.

Science is also important to everyone who is affected by modern technology. Many of the things that make our lives easier and better are the results of advances in technology and, if the present patterns continue, technology will affect us even more in the future than it does now. In some cases, such as technology for taking salt out of ocean water, technology may be essential for our lives on Earth.

The study of science also provides people with an understanding of natural world. Scientists are learning to predict earthquakes, are continuing to study many other natural events such as storms. Scientists are also studying various aspects of human biology and the origin and developments of the human race. The study of the natural world may help improve life for many people all over the world.

A basic knowledge of science is essential for everyone. It helps people find their way in the changing world.

I. Read the text ‘Science’ and find the derivatives from the following worlds. Define what parts of speech they are. Translate them into Russian:

science possible vary

develop understand supply

know nature importance

II. Find in the text ‘Science’ the opposites for the following:

war, on one hand, difficult, worse, the past, death, artificial, ancient.

III. Use the English equivalents for the words and phrases in brackets.

1. Science helped develop /современное оружие/. 2. Science develops more and more /решений/ to the energy problem. 3. Scientists predict /землетрясения/. 4. Knowledge is /необходимы/ for people. 5. Scientists are trying to /сохранить мир/ through research. 6. The problem of /обеспечения мира/ with enough energy is essential. 7. /Мировые ресурсы/ are not limitless. 8. Science studies /Вселенную/ and how to use its /возможности/. 9. Technology will affect people even more /в будущем/.

IV. Complete the following sentences. Use the vocabulary of the text.

1. Scientists have learned to use the energy of __________ . 2. Science helped improve __________ . 3. Knowledge is essential for people to find __________ . 4. The study of science provides people with __________ . 5. Scientists study many natural phenomena such as __________ . 6. The origin and developments of the human race is a very __________ . 7. A basic knowledge of science __________ .

V. Find in the text ‘Science’ the English equivalents for the following Russian phrases:

* создать современное оружие;

* проблема обеспечения мира энергией;

* разработать ряд решений энергетической проблемы;

* анализировать мировые ресурсы;

* сообща пользоваться ресурсами;

* знания, предоставляемые кому-либо наукой;

* использовать возможности на благо человека;

* быть связанным с современной техникой;

* результат технических достижений;

* иметь огромное значение для чьей-либо жизни;

* давать людям понимание чего-либо;

* изучать различные аспекты биологии человека;

* происхождение и развитие человеческого рода;

* элементарное знание науки;

* ориентироваться в меняющемся мире.

VI. Answer the questions.

1. Why is science so important in the modern world ? 2. How does science help keep peace in the world ? 3. How does science help solve the energy problem ? 4. What proves that the study of science is important for understanding of the natural world ?

VII. Translate into English.

1. Наука помогла разработать современное оружие. 2. Наука находит все новые решения энергетической проблемы. 3. Наука помогла людям научиться использовать энергию солнца и атома. 4. Наука помогла научиться совместному использованию ресурсов. 5. Ученые предсказывают землетрясения. 6. Наука помогла улучшить жизнь людей. 7. Знания необходимы людям, чтобы ориентироваться в изменяющемся мире.

VIII. Agree or disagree. Give your reasons.

1. Science very little affects everyday life. 2. We can hardly speak of any achievements in medicine. 3. Science is motivated by curiosity of a researcher. 4. We know exactly that there is biological life in our Universe besides the Earth. 5. The greatest achievements of science have improved people’s lives.

IX. Try to find examples of how technological progress has changed our lives.

X. Fill in the Public Opinion Poll and have a group discussion on the topic:

What do you think of science ? Do science and technology do more good than harm, more harm than good, or about equal ?

Opinion Men Women Total
More good than harm More harm than good About equal
G r a m m a r: 1. Modal verbs and their equivalents 2. Word-building. The suffixes of verbs T e x t s: A. Steve Jobs – founder of Apple B. Tim Berners-Lee – inventor of WWW C o n v e r s a t i o n: Prominent Persons

Г р а м м а т и ч е с к и й м а т е р и а л

1. Модальные глаголы и их заменители

(Modal Verbs and Their Equivalents)

Present Past Future
Can am is able to . are Could was able to . were will be able to .
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Возможность: могу, умею возможно Разрешение: можно Запрещение: нельзя · I can run very fast. · He can speak French. Can he do sums ? · You can get there by bus. · You can come at any time. · Can I have a cup of coffee ? · You can’t cross the street here.

Когда эквивалент модального глагола (can) дублирует уже имеющиеся формы (I can = I am able; He could = He was able), он имеет собственный оттенок значения am / is / are / able to — быть в состоянии, быть способным, were / were able toсмог, сумел, удалось (= manage).

PRESENT PAST FUTURE
Must have / has to . am / is / are to . had to . was / were to . will have to .
Долг, обязательство Приказ, настоятельный совет: должен Запрещение: нельзя, запрещено · We must study hard. · I must buy some bread. · You must go there at once. · You must see the doctor immediately. · You mustn’t smoke here.

Оттенки значения эквивалентов глагола must:

1. have to — вынужден, придется (в связи с обстоятельствами).

Ann’s eyes are not very good. She has to wear glasses for reading.

Jane was feeling ill last night so she had to leave the party early.

be to — долженствование, связанное с планом, договоренностью.

He is to meet us at the station at 5.

This is Dora. She is to share your room.

2. Для образования вопросительной и отрицательной формы эквивалента have to используются вспомогательные глаголы do / does / did.

Why did you have to go to hospital ?

Do you have to get up early on weekends ?

Tom doesn’t have to work on Sundays.

3. Mustn’t и don’t have to имеют разные значения:

не должен (просьба, приказ)

You mustn’t tell anyone what I said.

не нужно (отсутствие необходимости)

She stayed in bed this morning because she didn’t have to go to work.

PRESENT PAST FUTURE
May am is allowed to . are Might was allowed to . were will be allowed to .
Разрешение:* можно, разрешается Строгое запрещение: не смей Возможность: (воз)можно · May I come in ? Yes, you can (may). No, you can’t (may not). · You may not leave the room until I say so. · You may often see such faces in the South of Russia.

* В современном разговорном языке в этих случаях чаще используется глагол can (may — более официальная форма).

Спросить разрешения сделать что-либо можно следующим образом:

* Can / Could / May / Might I borrow your umbrella?

Краткий отрицательный ответ на такой вопрос может быть выражен следующим образом:

No, don’t — просьба не делать этого.

No, you may not — запрещение.

No, you must not No, you can not запрещение исходит не от вас, это запрещено правилами, законами и т.п.

Эквивалент модального глагола may (be allowed / permitted to . ) используется, когда необходимо подчеркнуть, что разрешение/запрещение исходит от кого-либо:

* You are (not) allowed / permitted to wait here.

Имеет лишь одну форму и выражает моральный долг, обязательство, совет, рекомендацию, порицание: должен, следует, нужно, нужно было бы, следовало бы.

Утвердительное предложение Вопросительное предложение Отрицательное предложение
I He should stay here. We I Should We stay here ? He I He shouldn’t stay here. We

Should может употребляться:

С простым инфинитивом, если речь идет о настоящем или будущем времени (о действии вообще). С перфектным инфинитивом, если относится к прошедшему времени и имеет оттенок сожаления, упрека.
· You should stop smoking. · Tom shouldn’t drive so fast. · Do you think, I should apply for the job ? · The party last night was great. You should have come. Why didn’t you ? · It was his birthday yesterday. I should have sent him a birthday card (but I didn’t).

Глагол need употребляется только в форме настоящего времени в вопросительных и отрицательных предложениях.

* Need he come here ? Ему нужно приходить сюда ?

* You needn’t come so early. Вам не нужно приходить так рано.

Необходимость совершения действия: нужно; есть ли необходимость. Отсутствие необходимости: не надо; нет необходимости. Разрешение не делать что-либо: можно не . . · Need I do it today ? · Need I go there at once ? · He needn’t hurry. · You needn’t change your suit. · You needn’t copy your essay. · You needn’t go there today.

Ответы на вопросы с глаголами need и must оформляются следующим образом:

Need I go there at once ? Yes, you must. Да, обязательно.
No, you needn’t. Нет, не нужно.
Must I go there at once ? Yes, you must. Да, должны
No, you needn’t. Нет, не нужно.

2. Словообразование. Суффиксы глаголов

(Word-building. The suffixes of verbs)

Запомните следующие суффиксы глаголов:

hard – твердый to harden – твердеть

sharp – острый to sharpen – заострять

-(i) fy

pure – чистый to purify – очищать

glory – слава to glorify – прославлять

special – специальный to specialize – специализировать

neutral – нейтральный to neutralize – нейтрализовать.

I. Translate the sentences. Pay attention to the predicate:

a) with a modal verb.

1. We must use new methods in our research work. 2. You may use this device in your laboratory. 3. This job cannot be done in time. 4. They ought to help their colleagues to solve this important problem. 5. He could not complete his research in time as he worked very slowly. 6. You should turn off the light before you leave the room.

b) with an equivalent of the modal verb.

1. The students were unable to do the work without their teacher’s help. He had to help them. 2. You needn’t take these documents with you. 3. You were to consult the dictionary. 4. He had to work much before he was able to complete his research. 5. You will have to show your research work to your scientific adviser. 6. Nobody was able to understand this mysterious phenomenon. 7. As the student was late he was not allowed to enter the classroom.

II. Complete these sentences. Use can, can’t or couldn’t + one of these verbs: come, find, hear, see, speak, eat, go, see, sleep, understand.

1. I’m sorry, but we ………………. to your party next Saturday.

2. She got the job because she ………… five languages.

3. You are speaking very quietly. I ……….. you.

4. Have you seen my bag? I ……….my dinner.

5. I like this hotel room. You ………. the mountains from the window.

6. I was tired but I …………

7. She spoke very quickly. I ……….. her.

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8. His eyes are not very good. He ………. very well.

9. I wasn’t hungry yesterday. I ………. my dinner.

10. He ……… to the concert next Saturday. He’s working.

11. He ………..to the meeting last week. He was ill.

III. What do you say in these situations? Use Can you ….?/ Could you ….?/ Can I ….?

1. (You are carrying a lot of things. You want me to open the door for you.)

You say to me: Can you open the door for me, please?

2. (We are having dinner. You want me to pass the salt.)

3. (You want me to turn off the radio.) …………………….

4. (You want to borrow my pen.) ………………………….

5. (You want to use my phone.) …………………………….?

6. (You want me to give you my address.) ………………….?

IV. Put in have to/ has to/ had to or must.

1. It’s a fantastic film, you ……….. see it.

2. In many countries men ………. do military service.

3. Sarah is a nurse. Sometimes she ………. work at weekends.

4. I didn’t have any money with me. So I …… borrow some.

5. You can’t park here for nothing. You ……. pay.

6. I eat too much chocolate. I really ………. stop.

7. In tennis you ………hit the ball over the net.

8. I ……… go to the bank yesterday to get some money.

9. The windows are very dirty. I ……. clean them.

10. I ….. get up early tomorrow. I’ve got a lot to do.

11. Come on! We ……. hurry. We haven’t got much time.

12. We arrived home very late last night. We ……… wait half an hour for a taxi.

V. Complete the sentences. Use mustn’t or needn’t + one of these verbs:

be, buy, clean, hurry, lose, stick, take, tell, wait.

1. The windows aren’t dirty. You ……. them.

2. I must hurry. I ……. late.

3. This letter is very important. You ……it.

4. We have lots of time. We ………..

5. We ………an umbrella. It’s not going to rain.

6. This is a secret. You …….. anybody.

7. You …….. a newspaper. You can have mine.

8. I’m not ready yet but you …….. for me. You go now and I’ll come later.

9. (a parent speaking to a child) You ……… your tongue out at people. It’s not polite,

VI. Substitute the equivalents for modal verbs. Translate the sentences.

1. Electronic machines can add, subtract, multiply and divide much quicker than man. 2. The conference on economic problems in Russia must take place next month. 3. You may use these new devices for your research. 4. With the help of this new design the scientist could develop new methods of solving the problem. 5. The student may not leave the lab if his experiment is not over. 6. Most people must work in order to earn their living.

VII. Put a predicate of the following sentences in the Past and Future Simple, change the adverbial modifier of time where it is necessary. Translate the sentences.

1. We must study the fundamentals of economics. 2. These students may work at the computer class from 9 to 12 today. 3. She can use different methods in her research work. 4. The students must explain how the economic system works. 5. Economists must study our everyday life.

VIII. Translate the sentences. Pay attention to the different ways of expressing obligation.

1. We must explain the work of this system. 2. One should study hard to be a good specialist. 3. This problem is very complex. You have to think it over properly. 4. We ought to say that this phenomenon is worth investigating. 5. We should be prepared for scientific study of management in industry. 6. Laws must serve people. 7. The lecture is to begin at 6 o’clock. We ought to come in time. 8. You were to come to my place yesterday. Why didn’t you do that ? 9. He will have to improve his knowledge of English.

IX. Make the sentences a) interrogative; b) negative.

1. Students have to know some facts of the economy in which we live. 2. He had to sit up late with this work. 3. You will have to get up very early tomorrow. 4. He had to come to the office at 5 sharp. 5. She will have to do it once over again. 6. These documents have to be filled in. 7. They had to cover the whole distance on foot. 8. We shall have to speak to him about his participation in the conference.

X. Translate the sentences.

1. Вы не должны прекращать работу, пока не закончите её. 2. Так как он приготовил всё заранее, ему не нужно делать это теперь. 3. Все слова в тексте были настолько хорошо знакомы, что мне даже незачем было пользоваться словарем. 4. Вам нужно было быть здесь не раньше пяти. 5. Не может быть, чтобы он опоздал. 6. Он не мог прочитать эту книгу так быстро; она трудна для него. 7. Вам следует теперь прочитать специальную литературу по экономике. 8. Вы можете не приносить эту статью сегодня; всё равно её будут печатать только завтра. 9. Возможно, он опоздает. 10. Могу ли я взять твой словарь? 11. Разве я мог подумать, что не попаду на лекцию по экономике? 12. Вы, должно быть, все читали эту статью? 13. Я не могу сегодня подготовиться к докладу. Библиотека закрыта. 14. Он, очевидно, не уловил вашей мысли. Вам следовало бы подробно объяснить свою точку зрения.

XI. a) Distribute the following verbs into 3 groups according to the suffixes. The first ones have been done for you:

shorten, typify, brighten, darken, clarify, identify, justify, simplify, visualize, intensify, energize, stabilize, falsify, mechanize, realize, deepen, humanize, criticize, densify, economize.

b) Translate these verbs. In case of difficulty look them up in the dictionary.

Р А Б О Т А С Т Е К С Т О М

Опора деревянной одностоечной и способы укрепление угловых опор: Опоры ВЛ — конструкции, предназначен­ные для поддерживания проводов на необходимой высоте над землей, водой.

Общие условия выбора системы дренажа: Система дренажа выбирается в зависимости от характера защищаемого.

Поперечные профили набережных и береговой полосы: На городских территориях берегоукрепление проектируют с учетом технических и экономических требований, но особое значение придают эстетическим.

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